RESTfu­­l Jav­a­ wit­h ­JAX­-­­RS 2.­0­ (Second Edition)

Conneg Explained

The first part of HTTP Content Negotiation is that clients can request a specific media type they would like returned when querying a server for information. Clients set an Accept request header that is a comma-delimited list of preferred formats. For example:

Accept: application/xml, application/json

In this example request, the client is asking the server for /stuff formatted in either XML or JSON. If the server is unable to provide the desired format, it will respond with a status code of 406, “Not Acceptable.” Otherwise, the server chooses one of the media types and sends a response in that format back to the client.

Wildcards and media type properties can also be used within the Accept header listing. For example:

Accept: text/*, text/html;level=1

The text/* media type means any text format.

Preference Ordering

The protocol also has both implicit and explicit rules for choosing a media type to respond with. The implicit rule is that more specific media types take precedence over less specific ones. Take this example:

Accept: text/*, text/html;level=1, */*, application/xml

The server assumes that the client always wants a concrete media type over a wildcard one, so the server would interpret the client preference as follows:

  1. text/html;level=1
  2. application/xml
  3. text/*
  4. */*

The text/html;level=1 type would come first because it is the most specific. The application/xml type would come next because it does not have any MIME type properties like text/html;level=1 does. After this would come the wildcard types, with text/* coming first because it is obviously more concrete than the match-all qualifier */*.

Clients can also be more specific on their preferences by using the q MIME type property. This property is a numeric value between 0.0 and 1.0, with 1.0 being the most preferred. For example:

Accept: text/*;q=0.9, */*;q=0.1, audio/mpeg, application/xml;q=0.5

If no q qualifier is given, then a value of 1.0 must be assumed. So, in our example request, the preference order is as follows:

  1. audio/mpeg
  2. text/*
  3. application/xml
  4. */*

The audio/mpeg type is chosen first because it has an implicit qualifier of 1.0. Text types come next, as text/* has a qualifier of 0.9. Even though application/xml is more specific, it has a lower preference value than text/*, so it follows in the third spot. If none of those types matches the formats the server can offer, anything can be passed back to the client.